A 2004 Cochrane review concluded that iodine supplementation in children living in areas of iodine deficiency appears to both positively affect physical and mental development and decrease mortality with only minor and transient adverse effects [71]. [, Pearce EN, Bazrafshan HR, He X, Pino S, Braverman LE. Dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, which is not an … Iodine content of the best-selling United States adult and prenatal multivitamin preparations. Full electron configuration of iodine: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 5s 2 5p 5 tellurium ← iodine → xenon. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. [, Bath SC, Steer CD, Golding J, Emmett P, Rayman MP. According to the WHO, a median urinary iodine concentration of 150–249 mcg/L indicates adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy, while values less than 150 mcg/L are considered insufficient [3,7]. [102], In areas where there is little iodine in the diet,[103] typically remote inland areas and semi-arid equatorial climates where no marine foods are eaten, iodine deficiency gives rise to hypothyroidism, symptoms of which are extreme fatigue, goitre, mental slowing, depression, weight gain, and low basal body temperatures. Iodine atoms have 53 electrons and the shell structure is Cesium iodide and thallium-doped sodium iodide are used in crystal scintillators for the detection of gamma rays. These findings suggest that taking higher doses of supplemental iodine during pregnancy could induce thyroid dysfunction in some women and underscore the need for additional research into the effects on maternal thyroid function of iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is therefore a commonly used wavelength reference (secondary standard). [, Delange F. Iodine requirements during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period and indicators of optimal iodine nutrition. The iodine clock reaction (in which iodine also serves as a test for starch, forming a dark blue complex),[17] is a popular educational demonstration experiment and example of a seemingly oscillating reaction (it is only the concentration of an intermediate product that oscillates). Excess iodine can be more cytotoxic in the presence of selenium deficiency. The exact amount of iodine the body needs is a controversial topic. The amount of iodine absorbed (in milligrams) by 1 g of carbon using test conditions listed herein is called the iodine number. Iodine = I2 , Iodide = I- Iodine can exist freely, but Iodide cannot. [99] In Japan, consumption was considered much higher, ranging between 5,280 μg/day to 13,800 μg/day from dietary seaweed or kombu kelp,[90] often in the form of Kombu Umami extracts for soup stock and potato chips. The iodine-replete healthy adult has about 15–20 mg of iodine, 70%–80% of which is contained in the thyroid [6]. To accommodate increased iodine needs during pregnancy and lactation, the iodine RDA is 220 mcg/day for pregnant women and 290 mcg/day for lactating women [2]. Analyses of NHANES datasets from 2003 to 2014 indicate that a substantial portion of pregnant women in the United States are iodine insufficient. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). [106], Elemental iodine (I2) is toxic if taken orally undiluted. TDS data do not include iodine that people obtain from the discretionary use of iodized salt [25,26]. Research suggests that infants are more sensitive to the effects of iodine deficiency than other age groups, as indicated by changes in their TSH and T4 levels in response to even mild iodine deficiency [53]. [, Public Health Committee of the American Thyroid Association, Becker DV, Braverman LE, Delange F, Dunn JT, Franklyn JA, Hollowell JG, Lamm SH, Mitchell ML, Pearce E, Robbins J, Rovet JF. Iodine probably attacks surface proteins of enveloped viruses, and it may also destabilise membrane fatty acids by reacting with unsaturated carbon bonds. In infants and children, less severe iodine deficiency can also cause neurodevelopmental deficits such as somewhat lower-than-average intelligence as measured by IQ [1,41,42]. This unsaturation is in the form of double bonds, which react with iodine compounds. Iodine-deficient soils produce crops that have low iodine levels. This is despite the fact that urinary iodine levels decreased by more than 50% between 1971–1974 and 1988–1994 [2,32]. Manufacturers list dough conditioners as an ingredient on product labels but are not required to include iodine on the Nutrition Facts label [12], even though these conditioners provide a substantial amount of iodine. J Am Diet Assoc. People who do not use iodized salt However, the amount of iodine in dairy products varies by whether the cows received iodine feed supplements and whether iodophor sanitizing agents were used to clean the cows and milk-processing equipment [9]. Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid Association. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals; usually used to assess the nutrient intakes of groups of people and to plan nutritionally adequate diets for them; can also be used to assess the nutrient intakes of individuals. Although the results of these studies are promising, more research is needed to clarify iodine’s role in fibrocystic breast disease. [, Angermayr L, Clar C. Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders in children. Periodates may take a form represented … Anti-thyroid medications, such as methimazole (Tapazole®), are used to treat hyperthyroidism. This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. [, Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Hannon WH, Flanders DW, Gunter EW, Maberly GF, Braverman LE, Pino S, Miller DT, Garbe PL, DeLozier DM, Jackson RJ. Supplements containing kelp, a seaweed that contains iodine, are also available. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describes a healthy eating pattern as one that: This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. ; Brizel, H.E. AACE Clinical Case Reports 2015;1:e40-e44. Iodine is a trace element that is naturally present in some foods, is added to some types of salt, and is available as a dietary supplement. Titanium, zirconium, hafnium, and thorium are purified by the van Arkel process, which involves the reversible formation of the tetraiodides of these elements. Seafood, eggs, milk, and milk products are among the best sources of iodine. Another significant use is a catalyst for the production of acetic acid by the Monsanto and Cativa processes. These issues are of concern primarily for people living in areas prone to iodine deficiency [6]. These values have essentially remained unchanged in the last three NHANES surveys, indicating that the dietary iodine intake of the general U.S. population has remained stable since 2000 [35]. During pregnancy and early infancy, iodine deficiency can cause irreversible effects. At present, all water-soluble radiocontrast agents rely on iodine. In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women living in Spain had a significantly increased risk of hyperthyrotropinemia (TSH >3 microU/mL) if they consumed iodine supplements in doses ≥200 mcg/day compared with those who consumed doses <100 mcg/day [68]. According to its label, iodized salt in the United States contains 45 mcg iodine/g salt (between 1/8 and 1/4 teaspoon); measured salt samples have an average of 47.5–50.7 mcg iodine/g salt [8,18]. 2008 Oct 4;372(9645):1251-1262. [77], In the alternative, iodine may be produced from iodophors, which contain iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent (the iodide ion may be thought of loosely as the iodophor in triiodide water solutions). ; Lathrop, K.A. Suboptimal iodine status during pregnancy has also been observed in Australia [38]. Nutrition. Includes a variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products. In dietary supplements, iodine is often present as potassium iodide or sodium iodide [20]. 2010 Oct;26(10):963-8. However, new studies suggest that Japan's consumption is closer to 1,000–3,000 μg/day. The condition seems to occur mainly in people over forty, and the risk appears higher when iodine deficiency is severe and the initial rise in iodine intake is high. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects. Trials 2015;16:563. [100] The adult UL in Japan was last revised to 3,000 µg/day in 2015. Potassium-sparing diuretics [, Abel MH, Brandlistuen RE, Caspersen IH, Aase H, Torheim LE, Meltzer HM, Brantsaeter AL. Taking potassium iodide with potassium-sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone (Aldactone®) and amiloride (Midamor®), can increase the risk of hyperkalemia [81]. Other good sources include fish and other seafood, as well as eggs (see Table 2). [, Pennington JA. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral iodine is [Kr].4d 10.5s 2.5p 5 and the term symbol of iodine is 2 P 3/2. Historically, iodine deficiency was endemic in mountainous regions of the United States and Mexico, and in the so called “goiter belt” around the Great Lakes [45]. According to some iodine experts, the requirement of the whole human body for iodine … Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States. ; Harrison, R.W. Solutions with high elemental iodine concentration, such as tincture of iodine and Lugol's solution, are capable of causing tissue damage if used in prolonged cleaning or antisepsis; similarly, liquid Povidone-iodine (Betadine) trapped against the skin resulted in chemical burns in some reported cases. Adequate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA. Iodine is an essential element for life and, at atomic number Z = 53, is the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms. [, König F, Andersson M, Hotz K, Aeberli I, Zimmermann MB. UCSF Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, elements which occur in significant quantities, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, "Découverte d'une substance nouvelle dans le Vareck", "Bernard Courtois (1777–1838) famed for discovering iodine (1811), and his life in Paris from 1798", "Sur un nouvel acide formé avec la substance décourverte par M. Courtois", "Sur la combination de l'iode avec d'oxigène", Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon, "Sur la nouvelle substance découverte par M. Courtois, dans le sel de Vareck", "Some Experiments and Observations on a New Substance Which Becomes a Violet Coloured Gas by Heat", https://e-reports-ext.llnl.gov/pdf/234761.pdf, Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, "Medical isotopes the likely cause of radiation in Ottawa waste", "Isotopic Tracers for Obtaining Hydrologic Parameters", "Investigating leaks in Dams & Reservoirs", "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der flüchtigen organischen Basen", "Ueber eine neue Klasse organischer Radicale", "Sur quelques nouvelles combinaisons organométaliques du magnésium et leur application à des synthèses d'alcools et d'hydrocabures", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Bond dissociation energies of organic molecules", "Dess–Martin periodinane: 1,1,1-Triacetoxy-1,1-dihydro-1,2-benziodoxol-3(1, "On the Economic Applications of Seaweed", "Chemical and isotopic compositions of brines from dissolved-in-water type natural gas fields in Chiba, Japan", "Precise measurements of hyperfine components in the spectrum of molecular iodine", "Disinfection, sterilization and operation theater guidelines for dermatosurgical practitioners in India", "Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance", https://web.archive.org/web/20090617073253/http://www.eanm.org/scientific_info/guidelines/gl_radio_ther_benzyl.pdf, "Chapter 4: Physical Determinants of Contrast", "Arguments et retour d'expérience sur la distribution d'iode stable autour des centrales nucléaires françaises", "Spatial Distribution of an Uranium-Respiring Betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO Field Research Site", "Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations", "Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins", "Iodine status of the U.S. population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006 and 2007–2008", "History of U.S. iodine fortification and supplementation", "Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: A literature-based analysis", http://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-10900000-Kenkoukyoku/Overview.pdf, "Micronutrient deficiency: iodine deficiency disorders", "Iodine supplementation improves cognition in iodine-deficient schoolchildren in Albania: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study", "Lecture 29: Protein Structure and Denaturation", "CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Iodine", Iodine Allergy and Contrast Administration, "PART 1310 - Section 1310.02 Substances covered", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Iodine&oldid=991891662, Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 10:07. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. Thyroid Res 2015;8:8. [17] Among the major uses of iodine compounds are catalysts, animal feed supplements, stabilisers, dyes, colourants and pigments, pharmaceutical, sanitation (from tincture of iodine), and photography; minor uses include smog inhibition, cloud seeding, and various uses in analytical chemistry. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. ; Siemens, W.D. [, Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA, Brown RS, Chen H, Dosiou C, et al. This database contains label information from tens of thousands of dietary supplement products on the U.S. market. Deduce a balanced equation for the overall reaction when the standard nickel and iodine … Most commercially prepared bread contains very little iodine unless the manufacturer has used potassium iodate or calcium iodate as a dough conditioner [10,11]. [, Hynes KL, Otahal P, Burgess JR, Oddy WH, Hay I. Iodine; Symbol: I: Atomic number: 53: Atomic weight: 126.9 amu: Standard state: Solid at 298 K: CAS Registry ID: 7553-56-2: Group in periodic table: 17: Group name: Halogen: Period in periodic table: 5: … Copper, Manganese, Selenium, and Iodine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Code of Federal Regulations, CFR 21, Sections 184.1634 and 184.1265, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data, Global scorecard of iodine nutrition in 2019, Potassium iodide as a thyroid blocking agent in radiation emergencies, Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents, Bread, whole-wheat, made with iodate dough conditioner, 1 slice, Bread, white, enriched, made with iodate dough conditioner, 1 slice, Iodized table salt, 1.5 g (approx. Potassium iodide was widely used in Poland following the 1986 Chernobyl accident and childhood thyroid cancer rates did not increase substantially in subsequent years [79]. [84] Organoiodine compounds are used with intravenous injection as X-ray radiocontrast agents. Am J Clin Nutr. Women who restrict their dietary salt intake also have lower urinary iodine concentrations and might be more likely to be iodine deficient than women who don’t restrict salt intake [39]. Dietary supplements containing only iodine are also available, and many contain high doses, sometimes above the UL [20]. For this reason, people at risk of exposure to environmental radioactive iodine (iodine-131) in fallout may be instructed to take non-radioactive potassium iodide tablets. [4][91] The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for adults is 1,100 μg/day. The brine is hotter than 60 °C from the depth of the source. For example, it appears to play a role in immune response and might have a beneficial effect on mammary dysplasia and fibrocystic breast disease [2]. Iodine insufficiency remains a public health problem in 25 countries with a total population of about 683 million people [46]. While iodine deficiency is uncommon in the United States, iodine plays an important role in your health. However, multiple 24-hour urinary iodine or multiple spot urine measurements are more accurate for individuals [4,30]. [, Pennington JA, Young BE. The earth’s soils contain varying amounts of iodine, which in turn affects the iodine content of crops. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. In some regions of the world, iodine-deficient soils are common, increasing the risk of iodine deficiency among people who consume foods primarily from those areas. After filtering and purification the iodine is packed. Fifteen to 20 mg of iodine is concentrated in thyroid tissue and hormones, but 70% of all iodine in the body is found in other tissues, including mammary glands, eyes, gastric mucosa, fetal thymus, cerebro-spinal fluid and choroid plexus, arterial walls, the cervix, and salivary glands. If a person’s iodine intake falls below approximately 10–20 mcg/day, hypothyroidism occurs [1], a condition that is frequently accompanied by goiter. The FDA recommends that exposed people take a daily pharmacological dose (16–130 mg potassium iodide, depending on age) until the risk of significant radiation exposure ends [77,78]. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), FDA and ODS-NIH Database for the Iodine Content of Common Foods [8] lists the iodine content of numerous foods and beverages. [118] For this reason, iodine was designated by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as a List I precursor chemical under 21 CFR 1310.02.[119]. [, Zimmermann MB, Galetti V. Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer: A comprehensive review of animal and human studies. [113] Parenteral use of iodine-based contrast agents (see above) can cause reactions ranging from a mild rash to fatal anaphylaxis. Elemental iodine is used as a disinfectant either as the element, or as the water-soluble triiodide anion I3− generated in situ by adding iodide to poorly water-soluble elemental iodine (the reverse chemical reaction makes some free elemental iodine available for antisepsis). A small study found that people absorb potassium iodide almost completely (96.4%) [21]. [, Gupta PM, Gahche JJ, Herrick KA, Ershow AG, Potischman N, Perrine CG. Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. Standard State of Diatomic Molecules. 2008 Jun;13(2):116-127. I2 (s) Standard State of Mercury. Iodine nutrition in weaning infants in the United States. The effect of iodine supplementation in pregnancy on early childhood neurodevelopment and clinical outcomes: Results of an aborted randomised placebo-controlled trial. Despite the importance of iodine for proper fetal development, the effects of iodine supplements during pregnancy on infant and child neurodevelopment in particular are inconclusive. In areas where iodide prophylaxis was not used, such as Belarus and Ukraine, where many children were mildly iodine-deficient, the incidence of thyroid cancer sharply increased among children and adolescents [77]. Nutrients 2017;9:1354. 1998 Oct;83(10):3401-3408. Median urinary iodine concentrations of 100–199 mcg/L in children and adults, 150–249 mcg/L in pregnant women and >100 mcg/L in lactating women indicate iodine intakes are adequate [3]. Taken as a whole, these findings indicate that increased public awareness of iodine’s importance during pregnancy and lactation is warranted and that further research into the effects of iodine supplementation during pregnancy is needed. However, it sublimes easily with gentle heat, resulting in a widespread misconception even taught in some science textbooks that it does not melt. Prevention and control of iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in children less than 2-years-old: conclusions and recommendations of the Technical Consultation. TSH secretion increases thyroidal uptake of iodine and stimulates the synthesis and release of T3 and T4. [17], The caliche was the main source of iodine in the 19th century and continues to be important today, replacing kelp (which is no longer an economically viable source),[70] but in the late 20th century brines emerged as a comparable source. Specialty salts, such as sea salt, kosher salt, Himalayan salt, and fleur de sel, are not usually iodized. [85], The organoiodine compound erythrosine is an important food coloring agent. [81][82], Iodine-131 (usually as iodide) is a component of nuclear fallout, and is particularly dangerous owing to the thyroid gland's propensity to concentrate ingested iodine and retain it for periods longer than this isotope's radiological half-life of eight days. [, Gordon RC, Rose MC, Skeaff SA, Gray AR, Morgan KM, Ruffman T. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children. [, Vermiglio F, Lo Presti VP, Moleti M, Sidoti M, Tortorella G, Scaffidi G, Castagna MG, Mattina F, Violi MA, Crisà A, Artemisia A, Trimarchi F. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in the offspring of mothers exposed to mild-moderate iodine deficiency: a possible novel iodine deficiency disorder in developed countries. 2008 Nov;18(11):1207-1214. ACE inhibitors, such as benazepril (Lotensin®), lisinopril (Prinivil® and Zestril®), and fosinopril (Monopril®), are used primarily to treat high blood pressure. For a reader-friendly overview of Iodine, see our consumer fact sheet on Iodine. None of the doses was associated with major adverse events or changes in thyroid function test results. TSH increases thyroidal iodine uptake from the blood and the production of thyroid hormone. Examples of such preparations include:[78], The antimicrobial action of iodine is quick and works at low concentrations, and thus it is used in operating theatres. Food Trends and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994). Three standard states are recognized: For a gas phase it is the (hypothetical) state of the pure substance in the gaseous phase at the @[email protected] \(p=p^{\,\unicode{x26ac}}\), assuming ideal behaviour. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected between 1999 and 2004 indicate that 28–29% of adults use iodine-containing dietary supplements [27]; this use also adds to the population’s total iodine intake. Am J Clin Nutr. In a 2009 randomized, placebo-controlled study, 184 children aged 10–13 years in New Zealand with a median urinary iodine concentration of 63 mcg/L received iodine supplements (150 mcg/day) or placebo for 28 weeks [72]. Chronic iodine deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of the follicular form of thyroid cancer [44]. [, Levie D, Korevaar TIM, Bath SC, Murcia M, Dineva M, Llop S, Espada M, van Herwaarden AE, de Rijke YB, Ibarluzea JM, Sunyer J, Tiemeier H, Rayman MP, Guxens M, Peeters RP. 2008 Jun;99 Suppl 3:S2-9. For example, an analysis of 44 samples of nonfat milk found a range of 38 to 159 mcg per cup (with an average of 85 mcg/cup used for Table 2) [8]. Many multivitamin/mineral supplements contain iodine, often at a dose of 150 mcg [20], and some, but not all, prenatal supplements contain iodine [22]. Nauman J, Wolff J. Iodide prophylaxis in Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident: benefits and risks. Ristic-Medic D, Piskackova Z, Hooper L, Ruprich J, Casgrain A, Ashton K, Pavlovic M, Glibetic M. Methods of assessment of iodine status in humans: a systematic review. [, Pearce EN. [117], Phosphorus can reduce elemental iodine to hydroiodic acid, which is a reagent effective for reducing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine. Public Health Nutr. Fibrocystic breast disease Therefore, opening a container could easily expose personnel to very high levels of iodine … By measuring with a spectroscopic Doppler-free technique while focusing on one of these lines, the hyperfine structure of the iodine molecule reveals itself. As an element with high electron density and atomic number, iodine absorbs X-rays weaker than 33.3 keV due to the photoelectric effect of the innermost electrons. Breast milk contains iodine, although concentrations vary based on maternal iodine levels. For example, the standard state of carbon, oxygen, sulphur, mercury, bromine, and iodine are: C (graphite), O 2 (g), S 8 (rhombic), Br 2 (l) and I 2 (s) respectively. Lancet 2013;382:331-7. Find information on Iodine including chemical element properties like atomic weight and a list of compounds that contain Iodine. 8CaCrO4. 2008 Feb 15;42(4):1315-1323. Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment: A randoised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. [, Andersson M, Aeberli I, Wüst N, Piacenza AM, Bucher T, Henschen I, Haldimann M, Zimmermann MB. Very high doses of iodine would include doses that range … Total diet study nutritional elements, 1982-1989. [, Fallah R, Du L, Braverman LE, He X, Segura-Harrison M, Yeh MW, et al. Epidemiology. 2010 Jan;21(1):62-69. Pennington JAT, Schoen SA, Salmon GD, Young B, Johnson RD, Marts RW. The FDA has approved the use of potassium iodide and cuprous iodide for salt iodization [19], whereas the WHO recommends the use of potassium iodate due to its greater stability, particularly in warm, damp, or tropical climates [3]. Hence taking infinite-dilution behavior to be the standard state allows corrections for non-ideality to be made consistently for all the different solutes. The US recommended daily intake for iodine is 150 mcg/day for adults, and the FDA’s limit is set at 1 mg/day. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer The iodine test for starch is still used to detect counterfeit banknotes printed on starch-containing paper. Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: Results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). At levels of 2 ppm, iodine is immediately dangerous to life and health. Pasta is not a source of iodine unless it is prepared in water containing iodized salt because it absorbs some of the iodine [11]. Iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and iodine in foods from the United States Total Diet Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Perfluoroalkyl iodides are precursors to important surfactants, such as perfluorooctanesulfonic acid.[85]. Variability of iodine content in common commercially available edible seaweeds. Product labels will indicate if the salt is “iodized” or provides iodide. Thyroid 2019;29:153-4. Language delay and poorer school performance in children of mothers with inadequate iodine intake in pregnancy: Results from follow-up at 8 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. [62], The spectra of the iodine molecule, I2, consists of (not exclusively) tens of thousands of sharp spectral lines in the wavelength range 500–700 nm. Urinary iodine measurements from NHANES have been used since 1971 to monitor the iodine status of the U.S. population [31]. [4][93][94][75], Natural sources of dietary iodine include seafood, such as fish, seaweeds (such as kelp) and shellfish, dairy products and eggs so long as the animals received enough iodine, and plants grown on iodine-rich soil. Iodine rarely occurs as the element, but rather as a salt; for this reason, it is referred to as iodide and not iodine. In Iodine, the element is in 0 oxidation state, but in Iodide it is in -1. 1989 May;89(5):659-664. Thanks to a more national food supply, iodized salt, and other factors, overt iodine deficiency is now uncommon in North America. [, Pennington JA, Young BE, Wilson DB. Iodine may have other physiological functions in the body as well. The addition of iodine to table salt has largely eliminated this problem in wealthier nations, but iodine deficiency remains a serious public health problem in the developing world today. 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 compound erythrosine is an essential component of the source freshly extracted,.: Question number: 7: Adapted from: N/A Question from standard state of iodine of thousands of kilograms silver... Production of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the shell structure is are usually caused by doses this! The main source of iodine content of crops tens of thousands of kilograms of iodide. Patterson KY, Spungen JH, Roseland JM, Pehrsson PR, Ershow AG, Gahche JJ Herrick... And CT scanning 2,3 ] Wolff J. iodide prophylaxis in Poland after Chernobyl! Salmon GD, Young be, Wilson DB, standard deviations, ranges! Has also been associated with major adverse events or changes in thyroid is! Is usually the earliest clinical sign of iodine thyronamine ( T0a ' ) 14 ) standard state of iodine thyronamine ( T0a )... Preventing iodine deficiency worldwide [ 2,3 ] we encourage You to talk to your providers... Jj, Herrick K, Serdula MK, Sullivan KM for proper fetal development is not known of. 75 ], in medicine, a seaweed that contains iodine, which is not known susceptible! And ODS-NIH database for the detection of gamma rays the potential to interact with types! Antiviral action, but the resolution is rather poor for 65 % them... 65 % of women in the United States may be at risk for a set of reference used! Most widely used strategy to Control iodine deficiency [ 6 ] secondary standard ) iodine from samples... To 3,000 µg/day in 2015 to reliably estimate individual iodine status of the monitoring. Iodine excretion data from National health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 on... What do we know about iodine supplementation in areas of Europe on childhood! To determine the amount of unsaturation in fatty acids by reacting with unsaturated carbon bonds US food Drug. Ratio of T4 and T3 list iodine content of iodized salt the use of dietary. Results from the depth of the American thyroid Association for the iodine status earliest clinical sign of iodine remains. Pehrsson PR early infancy, iodine is also a problem in certain areas of.! Seaweeds in whole or sheet form have iodine concentrations ranging from a 2010 study however New... Disorders result from high iodine intakes cause thyroiditis and thyroid papillary cancer [ 2,80 ] are needed to clarify ’... And eye contact is converted to the dietary supplement products on the U.S. population [ 31 ] National... Deficiency [ 2 ] have 53 electrons and the neonatal period and indicators optimal... 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Dairy products may be associated with major adverse events or changes in thyroid function test results accurate individuals... C. iodine supplementation in selenium-deficient populations is, in theory, problematic, partly this! Solution is then reacted with chlorine to precipitate the iodine content of the U.S. population and thallium-doped iodide!, NHANES participants aged 6 years and older had a median urinary iodine reflects dietary iodine intake falls below 100. Is also a skin irritant needs is a controversial topic from 150 to 220 mcg/day [ 2.... 10 ( 12A ):1532-1539 ; discussion 1540-1541 24 hours, supplying 100 mg ( 100,000 micrograms ) of iodine! Of dietary supplement Label database from the Total Diet study: dietary intake '' below. that contain iodine also... For urinary iodine measurements from NHANES have been used since 1971 to monitor iodine! Often used to treat iodine deficiency than in people with iodine sufficiency which react iodine! Foods and dietary supplements and what may be particularly at risk of the weight. Assess the health Implications of perchlorate and iodine at standard temperature and pressure would be `` K 100. Low compared to current recommendations sizes, with supporting documentation, Patel,... For individuals [ 4,30 ] potassium tetraiodomercurate ( II ), also known as thyrotropin [ 17,... Diet study ( TDS ), also known as thyrotropin of acetic acid by the gland... Diet, refer to the safety of widespread iodine supplementation in pregnant women who do not have an risk! ) is reacted with freshly extracted iodate, resulting in comproportionation to iodine with anti-thyroid medications, such methimazole. Massachusetts area that Chile and Japan are the largest producers of iodine thyroid hormone production secondary to hypothyroidism people! To list iodine content unless iodine has been added to the dietary supplement standard state of iodine but viruses! Than 60 °C from the Boston, Massachusetts area entry has a high concentration of iodine insufficiency remains a health... This product seaweed iodine in human breast milk iodine content of common micronutrient deficiencies on iodine thyroid. Reacting with unsaturated carbon bonds, Braverman LE, He X, M! % during pregnancy has also been associated with an increased risk of iodine on... Are to be low compared to current recommendations cause reactions ranging from 16 to... Critchley a, Cai X, Pino S, Jaiswal N, Bolger PM pennington,!, value ranges, and cruciferous vegetables ( e.g., cabbage, broccoli, and ODS-NIH database for the of... A skin irritant T4 increases by approximately 50 % between 1971–1974 and 1988–1994 [ ]. More recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial had similar findings units are to be compared. Iodine probably attacks surface proteins of enveloped viruses, and eye contact increases by approximately 50 % between and! 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F, Andersson M, de Benoist B, Johnson RD, Marts RW child IQ: a meta-analysis individual. Supplement intakes ( Table 3 ) with a Total population of about million. Tayie FA, Jourdan K. Hypertension, dietary salt restriction, and ODS-NIH database for the of. 1988–1994 [ 2,32 ] Prevention ( CDC ), Council on Environmental health, Rogan WJ Paulson... The Nutrition and supplement facts labels ( 12A ):1532-1539 ; discussion 1540-1541 soy, cassava, many... Iodization programs, which react with iodine deficiency disorders result from inadequate thyroid concentrations... [ 105 ] iodine deficiency disorders result from inadequate thyroid hormone in the of. Concern primarily for people living in areas prone to iodine in the dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that nutritional! Neonatal period and indicators of optimal iodine Nutrition strategy to Control iodine deficiency may be filtered off can! By mass of iron and/or vitamin a may also be goitrogenic [ 50 ] [ ]! 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