The agrarian social structure in the Nizam’s Hyderabad was of a feudal order. The peasant movement that was to grow in Kerala in later years under Left leadership. The present study seeks to overcome this dissociation between the cultural/literary and the social/political spheres, … Dhanagare elabo­rates the police action as under: On India’s part the ‘police action’ was taken to stop the Razkar fren­zies as they not only created anarchic conditions within the state but also posed a serious threat to the internal security of neighbouring In­dian Territory. These movements had the sole purpose of restoring the earlier forms of rule and social relations. The Communist Party started working in Telangana in 1936. The region, now being called Telangana, was part of the erstwhile Hyderabad state which was merged into the Indian Union on 17 September, 1948. Telangana Movement Revisited, K. Balagopal, The Imperial Crisis in the Deccan, J. F. Richards, The. Prohibited Content 3. The princely state of Hyderabad under Asajahi Nizams was marked by a combination of religious-linguistic domination (by a mall Urdu-speaking Muslim elite ruling over predominantly Hindu-Telugu, Marathi, Kannada-speaking groups), total lack of political and civil … Surely, there were some gains to Kammar and Reddy—the rich peasant but the gains of the poor peas­ants such as sharecroppers were quite meagre. Telangana … The peasants killed or drove out the landlords and the local bureaucrats and seized and distributed the land. Recently, there has been a renewed interest, academic as well as political, in the study of the Telangana struggle, its silver jubilee celebrated by all shades of Communist Party in India, became, however, an occasion for mutual mud-slinging; but that must be left out of this study. This was a crisis for the tenants and the sharecroppers. The second, … It had two kinds of land tenure systems, namely, raiyatwari and jagirdari. Around 2,000 peasants were killed while fighting with the Indian army and around 25,000 communists and participants were arrested. This condition of ex­ploitation remained in practice till the jagirdari system was abolished in 1949. Telangana peasant movement, Tebhanga peasant movement and Naxalite movements are guided by Communist ideology (Rao, 2000. xviii). The Bardoli Movement in Gujarat 4. Peasant movements of the period took place in Telugu speaking parts but not in the parts of Kannada and Marathi speaking sections of Hyderabad state. Dhanagare very rightly makes his conclusive statement about the outcome of the movement when he says: …Telangana insurrection was no more successful than other peasant resistance movements in India. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC, IAS, Banking, Civil Services. D.N. Women In Telangana Peasant Movement: An Exploration In Sociology Of Literature. In 1956, Hyderabad State was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh. The Telangana movement (1948-51) was an armed revolt of peasants under the leadership of the Communist Party of India against oppressive landlordism patronized by the autocratic rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad. He goes on to explain that the remaining 60 per cent was under the government’s land revenue system that gave immense power to the landlords, and left those … The peasants later on were organised into an army and in­termittently fought guerrilla wars. The non-cultivating urban groups, mostly Brahmins, Marwaris, Komtis and Muslims, began to take interest in acquiring land. The Telangana Rebellion (IAST: tělaṃgāṇā věţţi cākiri udyamaṃ, "Telangana Bonded Labour Movement"; alternatively, tělaṃgāṇā raitāṃga sāyudha pōrāţaṃ, "Telangana Peasants Armed Struggle") was a peasant rebellion against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and, later, the princely state of Hyderabad. The course of events that led to the Telangana peasant struggle can be described as under: (1) The Telangana peasant movement was engineered by Commu­nist Party of India (CPI). The peasant struggle had developed to the stage of armed struggle against many difficulties and passing through victories and partial setbacks. Actu­ally the police action gave a death blow to the Communist-led Telangana peasant movement. By the middle of 1946, the Communist propaganda was fully intensified and covered about 300 to 400 villages under its influence. The Telangana Rebellion (1947-51): This movement was launched in the state of Andhra Pradesh against the former Nizam of Hyderabad. This exploitation, in course of time, became legitimised with the big farmers. Some of the most important peasant movements in India are as follows: 1. Peasant Movement # 1. The initial modest aims were to do away with the illegal and excessive exploitation meted out by these feudal lords in the name of bonded labour. Like all other movements, though, the Telangana struggle has become the source of legends and inspira­tion for the radical left in India. Part Three: Pitted against the Indian Army", "Demand for installing Chakali Ilamma's statue", "Declassify report on the 1948 Hyderabad massacre", "Hyderabad 1948: India's hidden massacre", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Telangana_Rebellion&oldid=984974507, Revolutionary movement for Indian independence, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. On the other hand the khalsa land or the raiyatwari system was also exploitative though the severity of exploitation in the khalsa system was a little lesser. The members of this voluntary or­ganisation were known as Razakars. Uniqueness of Telangana movement lies in the fact that seven decades ago, it witnessed an armed struggle against feudal forces, driven by its own economic and social agenda. Peasant Movements in Independent India. (4) The Reddis and Kammars were notable castes who traditionally worked as traders and moneylenders. The movement was strongest in Nalgonda, Warangal and Khammam. In the villages controlled by guerrillas, vethi and forced labour disappeared. Peasant Movements are a part of social movements against British atrocities in the 18th and 19th centuries of the British Colonial Period. The second group argued that the struggle was in no case less than terrorism. The agrarian social structure in the Nizam’s Hyderabad was of a feudal order. 31.4 Radical Peasant Movements in India 31.5 Tebhaga Movement 31.6 Telangana Movement 31.7 Naxalite Movement 31.8 Emerging Agrarian Social Structure and Peasants Movements 31.9 Change in Collective Mobilization 31.10 Conclusion 31.1 Introduction The central concern of this unit is to examine the various dimensions of the peasant movements. It was considered to be the privilege of the Dora to exploit the masses of peasants. D.N. Peasant leaders like Gajen Malik, Manik Hazra, Jatin Maity, Bijoy Mondal and others rose to prominence. This movement was launched in the state of Andhra Pradesh against the former Nizam of Hyderabad. Actually, till 1930, the poor condition of the peasants had reached its culmination. They were not in the pay­roll of the jagir administration; they were only given a percentage or the total land collection made by them. Puchchalapalli Sundaraiah went on to become the first leader of opposition in independent India.[6]. It brought the struggles of the peasantry to the forefront and serves as a reminder of the sacrifices made by the people of this region in fighting … It … of Andhra Pradesh. Ranga had laid down the regional level peasant organisation in Telangana. In Telangana region, the land ownership was in the hands of very few ruling class people. Disclaimer 9. According to Bhagela system, the tenant who had taken loan from the landlord was obliged to serve him till the debt is repaid. These victorious villages established communes reminiscent of Soviet mirs to administer their region. At the time of Independence we had the two most classical cases of peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946-7) and the Telangana movement (1946-51). With the change in capitalistic agricultural economy, there was no change in the status of the tenants and share­croppers. Other estimates by responsible observers run as high as 200,000. The Indian government sent the army in September 1948 to annex Hyderabad. Telangana Movement?Telangana Movement ? The 1952 elections led to the victory of the Congress party in Hyderabad state. In most of the cases, the Bhagela was required to serve the landlord for genera­tions. The actual cultivators of the land were subjected to high rent, increasing indebtedness and a system of free labour (also known as the vetti system ). [7], For the movement for Telangana's statehood, see, 1946–1951 Peasant rebellion in Telangana and Hyderabad, India, Nizam's resistance to join India/Pakistan, "Decline of a Patrimonial Regime: The Telangana Rebellion in India, 1946-51", "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-1951. Professor N.G. In the jagir area, the agents of the jagirdar who were the middlemen collected the land taxes. In Avadh, in the early months of 1921 when peasant activity was … No serious student of the Indian Communist movement can succeed in getting to the root cause and reason that inevitably paved the way for the split in 1962-63 if he were to bypass the struggle of Telangana and the various inner-party controversies that broke around the issue of conducting this valiant peasant resistance movement. A para-military voluntary force, organised by Kasim Rizvi, was taking its roots. (4) So far the demands of the poor agricultural classes were con­cerned the movement was a failure. The uniqueness of Naxalbari and its special contribution to the Indian people’s struggle for emancipation, the short review of the first phase of the movement (1967-72) suggests, consists in the fact that it was conceived as, and actually proved to be, not just another peasant insurgency but part of a larger project: founding a revolutionary communist party and, under its leadership, making the first comprehensive … Though, the lack of irrigation was realised by Nizam and he provided irrigation facilities to the peasants both in khalsa and jagir villages. As leader of the independence movement Congress party had not programme to feudal people. These samsthans were ruled mostly by Deshasthas,[2] Reddys and Velama,[citation needed] known as doralu. The Communist, for a long time to come, exer­cised their hegemony over the entire state of Hyderabad. The Bardoli Movement in Gujarat 4. After several years of protest and agitation, the central government, under the United Progressive Alliance, decided to bifurcate the existing Andhra Pradesh state and on 7 February 2014, the Union Cabinet unilaterally cleared the bill for the creation of Telangana. The families of these big peasants and their heads were called Durra or Dora. Initially only few peasants were participated but in January 1947, the Bengal Bargadars Temporary Regulation Bill incorporated the demand of the Sharecroppers. The Telangana Rebellion (1947-51): This movement was launched in the state of Andhra Pradesh against the former Nizam of Hyderabad. They established governments of peasant ‘soviets’ which were integrated regionally into a control or­ganisation. The government of the armed peasantry continued until 1950; it was not finally crushed until the following year. The leaders of this movement were Kampram Singh and Bhavan Singh. Dhanagare says that the Dora exploited the small peasants and agricultural labourers. The Telangana peasant unrest did not erupt over night. The last Nizam Asaf Jah VII was made the Rajpramukh of the Hyderabad State from 26 January 1950 to 31 October 1956. (3) Though the Communist Party, as a whole, benefited from the Telangana peasant struggle, it had its own losses also. Peasant Movements: Telangana Peasant Struggle (1947-51):- This movement was launched in the state of Andhra Pradesh against the former Nizam of Hyderabad. Working Class Movement Against British Rule in India . Peasant Movements - The Uprising of Peasants in 18th & 19th Century. At the time of Independence, we had the two most classical cases of peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946-47) and the Telangana Movement (1946-51). The Communist Party started working in Telangana in 1936. […] Now Telangana has 31 districts. Therefore, contemporary scholars consider these movements purely a struggle for identity rather than for resources. 36572+ Manuscript submission, 9855+ Research Paper Published, 100+ Articles from over 100 Countries Image Guidelines 5. 2. One of the bitter consequences of the forces of change has been an increase in the number of agricultural labourers. In the Krishna district, the people's movement in support of Telangana intensified. Among the well-known individuals at the forefront of the movement were Ravi Narayana Reddy, Maddikayala Omkar, Maddikayala Lakshmi Omkar, Puchalapalli Sundarayya, Pillaipalli Papireddy, Makhdoom Mohiuddin, Sulaiman Areeb, Hassan Nasir, Manthrala Adi Reddy, Bhimreddy Narasimha Reddy, Nandyala Srinivasa Reddy, Aruthula Kamaladevi and Bikumalla Sathyam. Privacy Policy 8. It was again separated from Andhra Pradesh to establish the State of Telangana in 2014. Writing about this part of the course of events of Telangana peasant struggle Hamza Alavi observes: …Telangana movement had a Guerrilla army of about 5,000. The movements ranged from the Telangana Peasants movement and the PEPSU tenants’ movement which continued right before the independence and the Naxalite or Maoist movement which began in the 1960’s and ‘new’ Farmer’s movement in 1980’s. The peasant insurrection of 1946-51 in the Telengana region of the erstwhile Hyderabad state was a pivotal moment in Indian history because of its impact on the future of the communist movement in India and its highlighting of the condition of the Indian peasantry. Be­tween 1910 to 1940 the frequency of land dispossession increased. The Telangana econ­omy, which was only subsistence economy, had grown into market economy by the 1940s. There was much of op­pression by the jagirdar and his agents. Peasant women in 1940s Telangana militancy were overwhelmingly disenfranchised by caste, class and educational and political opportunity. Part One: Historical Setting", "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-1951. Peasant Movements: Telangana Peasant Struggle (1947-51) British India. This was the biggest peasant guerrilla war of modern Indian history. It later became a fight against Nizam Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII. The Telangana rebellion was raised in the region of Telangana which was characterised by a feudal economy. Content Filtrations 6. Central government appointed a civil servant, M K Vellodi, as the first Chief Minister of Hyderabad state on 26 January 1950. You must be logged in to post a comment. The agrarian social structure in the Nizam’s Hyderabad was of a feudal order. The Telangana Peoples’ Struggle (also known as the Telangana Peasants’ Struggle or the Telangana Armed Struggle) was an anti-feudal and anti-caste movement against the Nizam of Hyderabad’s oppressive regime, and later that of Independent India. GANDHIAN IDEOLOGY OF THE PEASANT MOVEMENT Gandhi is, perhaps, the first Indian leader who tried to organise the masses for freedom. Peasant Movement # 1. [5] The Communist Party of India, although weak today, still retains strong support in the grassroots of Telangana. Ideologically, the party got split from top to bottom. THE Union government launched ‘police action’ on September 13, 1948, on Hyderabad State to force the Nizam to accede to the Indian Union and to suppress the spreading Telangana peasant movement. Report a Violation, Top 2 Peasant Movements in Post-Independence India, Highlights on Peasant Revolt in Punjab (1930), Bardoli Satyagraha: Useful Notes on Bardoli Satyagraha of 1928. Hyderabad state included 9 Telugu speaking districts of Telangana, 4 Kannada districts in Gulbarga division & 4 Marathi speaking districts in Aurangabad division. For a long time, peasants and sharecroppers were forced to give up about 50% of the year’s harvest to the landlord, while they would have kept the … Earlier, there were few peasant movements which begun in British period but the movements got identified and spread across the country through the formation of All India Kisan Sena (AIKS) in the year 1936. Actually, the modes of production and exchange remained pre-capitalist or semi-feudal and emerged as the major source of dis­content among the poor peasantry in Telangana. D.N. One of the most politically effective peasant movements was seen in the erstwhile State of Hyderabad. Vijay-Sukumar : తెలంగాణ సాయుధ పోరాటంలో విజయ్... అదిరిన సుకుమార్ ప్లానింగ్.. Vijay Devarakonda Sukumar movie will discuss the Telangana peasant movement here are the details (2) Yet another cause of peasant movement in Telangana was the ex­ploitation of the big peasants. Nizam. According to Sunderlal report which hasn't been officially released estimates that around 50,000 Muslims were massacred. This should suffice as an in­dex of the intensity of Telangana peasants struggle. Other significant movements: Almost all the movement like Kheda Peasant Struggle, Bardoli Movement in Gujarat, Peasant Revolt in Telangana, and Tebhaga Movement in Bengal, were against the oppressive British government and Zamindars. Content Guidelines 2. The most strident demand was for the writing off of all debts of the peasants that were manipulated by the feudal lords. The Telangana rebellion was raised in the region of Telangana which was characterised by a feudal economy. ADVERTISEMENTS: This article throw3s light upon the top two peasant movements in post-independent India. This sharp political ideological split, though enveloping the entire party in the country, was particu­larly sharp and acute in Telangana. The first was a struggle of sharecroppers in Bengal in North Bihar for two thirds share of their produce instead of the customary half. It took up a campaign to propagate the demands of the lower peasants. Peasant Movement: Details: Indigo Revolt (1859-60) Indigo was recognized as a chief cash crop for the East India Company’s investments. (3) In the whole former state of Nizam a system of slavery, quite like that of Hali of south Gujarat, was prevalent. The rise of Reddis and peasant proprietors further strengthened the high castes and prop­ertied class. Those who opposed this struggle had even openly come out with the press, providing grist to the mill of the enemies in maligning the struggle and the Communist Party that was leading it. To present, in brief, an overall balance-sheet of this heroic peasant uprising: it exacted tremendous sacrifices from the fighting peasantry of Telangana and the Visalandhra state unit of the Communist Party which was destined to lead this popular peasant uprising. Telangana Struggle: By July 1948, 2,500 villages in the south were organised into 'communes' as part of a peasant movement which came to be known as Telangana Struggle. The princely state of Hyderabad under Asajahi Nizams was marked by a combination of religious-linguistic domination (by a mall Urdu speaking Muslim elite ruling over predominantly Hindu-Telugu, Marathi, Kannada- speaking groups), total lack of political and civil … Note:-The peasant movements in U.P. The communist movement has made mistakes. It re­solved to give a revolutionary turn to the peasant movement in Telangana. The 'Tebhaga Movement' of Bengal was to provide two-thirds of the crop to the oppressed sharecroppers. Part Two: First Phase and Its Lessons", "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-51. Telangana peasant movement was based on . Telangana peasant movement, Tebhanga peasant movement and Naxalite movements are guided by Communist ideology (Rao, 2000. xviii). Actually, the year 1946 provided all opportunities for engineering the peasant struggle. Peasant Revolt in Telangana 6. The price trends strengthened the position of mon­eylenders and traders who tightened their grip on indebted small Pattadars and tenants. The years since independence have seen agrarian struggles of enormous variety, ranging from the legendary Telangana peasant movement and the PEPSU tenants’ movement which continued from the pre-independence years to the Naxalite or Maoist movement in the late 1960s and the ‘new’ farmers’ movements of the 1980s. At the same time, the Nizam resisted the Indian government's efforts to bring Hyderabad State into the Indian Union and also did not intend to join Pakistan. In jagir villages, the tax was collected through jagirdars and their agents. All the crops failed and there was a crisis of the availability of fodder. The movement was led by the All India Kisan Sabha, the peasant wing of CPI. Peasant Movements: Telangana Peasant Struggle (1947-51)! On the one hand, the land possessed by the non cultivating urban people, mostly Brahmins, Marwaris, and Muslims increased and on the other hand the tribal peasants got reduced to the status of marginal farmers and landless labourers. Telangana Movement: This was the biggest peasant guerrilla war of modern Indian history affecting 3000 villages and 3 million populations. It had two kinds of land tenure systems, namely, raiyatwari and … also exposed the conspiracy hatched by the British colonial power, Nehru government and the Nizam to suppress the peasant movement. Champaran Satyagraha (1917) 2. by Sociology Group. (5) Besides the peasant agitation, a parallel discontent was also tak­ing place in Hyderabad. Land reforms were recognised as important and various acts were passed to implement them. (6) On September 13, 1948, the Indian army marched into Hyder­abad and within less than a week the Nizam’s army, police and the Razakars surrendered without resistance. In 1952, Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief Minister of … Militant action was taken by the CPI-led peasants. Dhanagare informs that the jagirdars and the Deshmukhs had thousands of acres of land in their possession. Peasants were only waiting for some opportunity to en­gineer some insurrection. Telangana struggle betrayed it in calling it off in October 1951. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. The revolt ensured the victory of the Communist Party in Andhra Pradesh in the 1952 elections. In many ways, it was inherently feminist—with numerous women leaders advocating for socio-political reform not limited to caste … Las… The police action, taken by the newly framed Central Government of independent India, was very quick to suppress the peasant movement. This organisation was against the peasants. The develop­ment of agriculture depended on the facilities of irrigation. Within a period of three or four years, say by 1940, the CPI had established its roots in the for­mer Hyderabad state. However, it must be mentioned that in the mobilisation of peasantry, only Telangana local peasants partici­pated. Dr. M. Sreedevi Xavier. The police action gave a death blow to the Telangana peasant movement led by the Communist Party. In the early July 1946, the peasants resisted the government orders. Chakali Ilamma, belonging to the Rajaka caste, had revolted against 'zamindar' Ramachandra Reddy,[3] during the struggle when he tried to take her 4 acres of land. In such a situation, it would not be appropriate for farmers of Punjab, Haryana, Telangana, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh to participate in the demonstration. Worker, Peasant and Tribal Movement in Andhra Pradesh:- The role of the Andhras in the Freedom Struggle is next to that of none and they had always been in … There was much of op­pression by the Jagirdar and his agents when collecting the tax from farmers. The process of the sub-infeudation in the landholding accentuated the insecurity of the tenants and the poor peasants. Gandhi, at first, tried to understand the nature of Indian masses and then he formed certain methods which he used during the … Telangana peasant movement was launched in the state of Andhra Pradesh against the former Nizam of Hyderabad. Dhanagare writes: As a result of growing land alienation many actual occupants or culti­vators were being reduced to tenants-at-will, sharecroppers or landless labourers … in fact, where rich Pattadars held holdings too large to manage, they tended to keep a certain amount of irrigated land to be cultivated with the help of hired labour and turned over most of their dry lands either to Bhagela serfs or to tenant cultivators on very high produce rents. For engineering the peasant engaged as sharecroppers, 1948 the independence movement Congress Party had not to... The capital, Hyderabad however, it must be boldly said, was from above and not the! Eight-Hour days, and 30 paid holidays strengthened the high castes and prop­ertied class, Ashoke Bose and Rash Ghosh. The dominance of Brahmins as agriculturists in the status of the Communist Party started working Telangana. A period of three or four years, say by 1940, the masses of agricultural.! 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